With little access to essential amenities, more than a billion people live in marginal and unofficial settlements, frequently in high-risk locations. Climate change, deteriorating environmental conditions, and a lack of infrastructure all increase their susceptibility to calamities. Governments and donors continue to battle losses in these areas despite cutting-edge technologies for prediction and prevention. The establishment process and the elements that promote population movement to high-risk locations hold the key to the solution. Traditional solutions include moving or improving these communities, but without review and involvement from several stakeholders, these attempts frequently fall short, wasting time and money. (Emergency Management and Homeland Security Academic Program, Florida State University, n.d.)
Coastal informal settlers in Bacnotan, La Union are living in hazardous conditions due to inadequate housing and infrastructure, making them highly vulnerable to natural disasters and environmental degradation. These settlers are exposed to typhoons, floods, and other disasters due to poorly constructed and unsafe housing structures. Existing settlements lack disaster-resilient infrastructure, exposing residents to recurrent natural disasters and hindering their ability to recover effectively. Insufficient access to basic amenities like clean water, sanitation facilities, and adequate road networks negatively
impactsimpact the health, sanitation, and mobility of settlers.
Cultural disconnection is another issue, as current housing solutions often disregard local architectural heritage and cultural identity, leading to a loss of cultural cohesion and
a sense of belonging among resettled community members. Affordable housing and infrastructure development may be beyond the financial means of many settlers, perpetuating poverty and vulnerability.
Limited stakeholder engagement in housing projects can lead to solutions that may not align with the needs and preferences of the settlers. Securing funding and resources for housing and infrastructure improvements in informal settlements can be challenging, hindering the implementation of effective solutions.
Addressing these major and sub-problems is crucial for developing a successful proposal for affordable and resilient resettlement housing in Bacnotan, La Union,
servingwhich serves as a model for similar communities facing similar challenges.

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